Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 May 9. pii: AAC.02919-15. [Epub ahead of print]
The glutathione-disrupted biofilm of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains: enhanced antibiotic effect and a novel biofilm transcriptome.
Klare W1, Das T2, Ibugo A3, Buckle E4, Manefield M3, Manos J4.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections for individuals with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), result in high morbidity and mortality, with premature death often occurring. These infections are complicated by the formation of biofilms in the sputum. Antibiotic therapy is stymied by antibiotic resistance of the biofilm matrix, making novel anti-biofilm strategies highly desirable. Within the P. aeruginosa biofilm, the redox factor pyocyanin enhances biofilm integrity by intercalating with extracellular DNA. The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) reacts with pyocyanin, disrupting intercalation. This study investigated GSH disruption by assaying the physiological effects of GSH and DNase I on biofilms of clinical CF isolates grown in artificial CF sputum media (ASMDM+). Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed that 2mM GSH alone or combined with DNase I significantly disrupted the immature (24 hour) biofilms of Australian Epidemic Strain (AES) isogens AES-1R and AES-1M. GSH alone greatly disrupted the mature (72 hour) biofilm of AES-1R, resulting in significant differential expression of 587 genes, as evidenced by RNA-sequencing. Upregulated systems included cyclic diguanylate and pyoverdine biosynthesis, the Type VI secretion system, nitrate metabolism and translational machinery. Biofilm disruption with GSH revealed a cellular physiology distinct from mature and dispersed biofilm physiology. RNA-seq results were validated by biochemical assay and qPCR. Biofilms of a range of CF isolates disrupted with GSH and DNase I were significantly more susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and increased antibiotic effectiveness was achieved by increasing GSH concentration. This study demonstrated that GSH alone or with DNase I represent effective anti-biofilm treatments when combined with appropriate antibiotics, pending in vivo studies.
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