>Now the E111.
Jeez, when did you last leave the country?
The thing now is an EHIC - European Health Insurance Card. It entitles you to whatever's free for the citizens of the country where you're taken ill - e.g. say you needed your appendix out, or a broken bone fixed, chances are that's free for them and, with an EHIC, that'd be free for you too.
But, in many countries, the ambulance ride, helicopter ride, etc. isn't free for anyone, so expect a stonking great bill or get travel insurance.
But2, summer last year in France, Number One Son was cut on his cheek by the edge of a canoe paddle, not very wide but quite deep. So we took him (no ambulance or helicopter) to the surgery in the nearest town, where a doctor sewed it up. - 60E's; for his EHIC to have been of any use, we'd have had to haul him to the nearest hospital - 100 Km round-trip. The travel insurance would've covered it, but had a mandatory £50 excess ...