Some operating systems can be rolled back to their previous state/condition if there are issues after an update, so that nothing is lost, depending on what operations have been done since the update.
When a fresh install is done for an operating system, it asks you to reformat the HD or SSD, which effectively erases everything, before installing the operating system. In this case it is almost impossible to recover all the files.
Your post does not give enough information as to what type of Windows installation you performed and types of data lost.
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